How pencils were made
The completed pencils were then smoothed with a plane and polished by manually rubbing
them up and down in a leather covered roller and board. Varnishing the pencils was
a later development designed to enhance the natural colour of the wood. It also
helped prevent the pencils getting dirty during the latter stages. Finally, the
pencils were cut into uniform lengths with a saw and trimmed as necessary with a
The pencils were then stamped with the company name and pencil type, either by a
simple impression or by hand gilding in gold or silver leaf.